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Fuel

Exercise is affected by the availability of nutrients, the intensity and duration of the exercise, the muscle fiber types involved, the fitness othe athlete and any drugs they are taking

All these factors influence the unconscious decision of athletes regarding the type of fuel chosen during exercise.

Knowledge of these factos help athletes make informed conscious dietary decisions.

 High carbohydrate diets raise muscle and liver glycogen stores, while starvation and high fat diets increase plasma fatty acid concentrations.

 The increase in fatty acid concentration forces their use as a fuel source and their conversion into glucose. This is the goal of high protein/locarbohydrate diets. This helps overweight people loose weight. Endurance athletes depend on fatty acids to spare their glycogen stores Caffeine increases the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue. This elevates the plasma concentra- tion of fatty acids substantially. During the first 30 minutes of exercise the amount of fatty acids available to burn as fuel is low and is very slow to increase

Ingestion of caffeine prior to exercise elevates the fatty acid level in the blood. Caffeine thus spares an athletes glycogen stores by making fats available. When this occurs early in an exercise session, the athlete will burn less glucose to fuel exercise. This is an important advantage for endurance athletes since fatigue sets in only when glycogen is fully depleted.

 

The most important factor in determining the fuel used to power muscle work is the exercises duration and intensity. For example, in a 100 yard sprint 90% of the energy is derived from anaerobic sources (ATP-CP, glycolysis) while marathon runners obtain 99% of their energy from aerobic metabolism.

 The factors listed below effect and influence the bodies unconsciouand automatic decisions regarding the type of nutrient or fuel ichoses. Thmetabolic engine that drives exercise cleans out the carborators of stress and allows the human spirit to flow in the healthiesof states Physcical nirvana.

These factors include: the availabilityy of nutrients, the intensitand duration of exercise, the muscle fiber type used, the fitness of the individual along with their training, the drugs they are taking antheir overall nutrition. All of thesee factor influencee which nutrient thbody chooses to metaboliz,

High-carbohydrate diets raise muscle and liver glycogen stores, while starvation and high-fat diets increase plasma fatty acid concentrations. Thincrease in fatty acid concentration forces their use as an enery source as well as a conversion into glucose. This is the primary goal of high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet and the main reason why they help severely overweight people loose weight.

These diets, despite their increased reliance of fatty acids, are not recommended for endurance athletes. Although endurance athletes require fatty acids, there are better ways to stimulate fatty acid metabolism.

For example, the botanical compound, caffeine, increases the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue. This elevates the plasma concentration of fatty acids substantially.

During the first 30 minutes of exercise the amount of fatty acids available to burn as fuel is low and is very slow to increase. Ingestion of caffeine prior to exercise elevates the fatty acid level in the blood. Caffeine thus spares an athletes glycogen stores by making fats available to oxidize. That this occurs much earlier during an exercise session means that the athlete will burn less glucose to fuel the exercise. This is an important advantage for endurance athletes since fatigue sets in only when glycogen is fully depleted.

 The most important factor in determining the fuel used tpower muscle work is the exercises duration and intensity. For  example, in a 100 yard sprint 90% of the energy is derived froanaerobic sources (ATP-CP, glycolysis) while marathon runnerobtain 99% of their energy from aerobic metabolism.

Short duration and high intensity exercise is dependent on carbohydrates. Carbohydrate oxidation is better suited to fuel explosive short-duration movements while lipids better sustain exercise of long duration. Sprinters therefore possess a higher percentage of Type II, white fast-twitch fibers and endurance athletes more Type I, red slow twitch fibers. The respective fiber type preferentially metabolizes carbohydrates or fats.

Many of the coenzymes in metabolic pathways that are required by muscle cells are derivatives of vitamins. Most of these vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body. Minerals are also involved in man oxidative reactions. Their delivery depends on an adequate amount of red blood cells and their oxygen carrying capacity. The inability of an athlete to provide proper levels of vitamins, minerals or oxygen to working muscle cells, will induce a reliance on anaerobic metabolism and cause premature fatigue.

Training adaptations occur as exercise habits progress. Training causes an increased reliance on intracellular lipids to meet long-term energy demands. For example, endurance athletes as they train, increase the number of mitochondria and capillary density of their muscles. They also increase the intramuscular triacylglycerol concentration and improve the capacity to use this lipid content as a fuel source. These beneficial effects of training are especially useful in submaximal intensity exercises.

 

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